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  1. page 5 Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers edited ... What are Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers? Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a group of illnesses ca…
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    What are Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers?
    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a group of illnesses caused by four distinct families of viruses: arenaviruses, filoviruses, bunyaviruses, and flaviviruses. They are all RNA viruses and are zoonotic (natural reservoir is an arthropod or another animal host). Transmission to humans occurs by contact with rodent feces, urine, saliva, blood, from a mosquito or tick bite or contact with infected animal or human. All types of VHF are characterized by fever and bleeding disorders. The viruses can progress to high fever, shock, internal or external bleeding, and even death. [1]
    {http://research.fuseink.com/artifactimg/MTMyMDE0MDk5NDM0MjNfMQ.jpg} Typical Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Symptoms
    Types of Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers: [2]
    {http://www.jpgmonline.com/articles/2012/58/1/images/jpgm_2012_58_1_39_93251_t1.jpg} Major worldwide hemorrhagic fever viruses
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  2. page 5 Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers edited ... History of Bioterrorism: Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Role in Bioterrorism {http://www.davegran…
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    History of Bioterrorism: Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
    Role in Bioterrorism
    {http://www.davegranlund.com/cartoons/wp-content/uploads/arc67.jpg#bio%20terror}
    The former Soviet Union developed the Marburg virus for use as a weapon, and conducted research on Ebola, Lassa, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever and New World arenaviruses. The U.S. has done research on all of these viruses, except Marburg and Ebola. North Korea is believed to have developed the yellow fever virus as a weapon. In 1999, the CDC classified the VHF's as category A bioweapon agents, based on the potential to cause widespread illness and death, ease of dissemination or person to person transmission, potential for major public health impact, and requirement of special action for public health prepardness.
    What VHF's are the biggest threat? [4]
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  3. page 5 Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers edited ... What are Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers? Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a group of illnesses ca…
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    What are Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers?
    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a group of illnesses caused by four distinct families of viruses: arenaviruses, filoviruses, bunyaviruses, and flaviviruses. They are all RNA viruses and are zoonotic (natural reservoir is an arthropod or another animal host). Transmission to humans occurs by contact with rodent feces, urine, saliva, blood, from a mosquito or tick bite or contact with infected animal or human. All types of VHF are characterized by fever and bleeding disorders. The viruses can progress to high fever, shock, internal or external bleeding, and even death. [1]
    ...
    Hemorrhagic Fevers: [2]
    {http://www.jpgmonline.com/articles/2012/58/1/images/jpgm_2012_58_1_39_93251_t1.jpg} Major worldwide hemorrhagic fever viruses
    Bunyaviridae: a family of negative stranded, enveloped RNA viruses that are generally found in arthropods (ticks and mosquitoes) or rodents. Examples of this type of VHF include Rift Valley Fever, Crimean-Congo fever and Hantavirus fever.
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  4. page 5 Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers edited ... Crimean Congo Fever: is a tick born disease with a 30% mortality rate, outbreaks are usually a…
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    Crimean Congo Fever: is a tick born disease with a 30% mortality rate, outbreaks are usually attributed to handling infected animals or people. Symptoms include acute kidney failure, shock, nosebleeds, swollen liver, and ecchymosis (see below)
    {https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQAGZScgqnjIb1zBdXhkkS4bwMNNvh1v1lIrOEgTgE9Q46J_qF4} A patient with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever with profound ecchymosis
    Flaviviridae: a family of viruses that are primarily spread through arthropod vectors (mainly ticks and mosquitoes). Viruses included in this family are yellow fever, dengue fever and Omsk fever.
    Dengue Fever: is a mosquito borne viral infection that causes flu like illness and can possibly develop lethal complications
    {http://www.niaid.nih.gov/SiteCollectionImages/topics/denguefever/michaelRossmannStory.JPG} Patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever has a large subcutaneous hemorrhage on upper arm.
    Arenaviridae:Arenaviridae:is a genus of viruses that infects rodents and occasionally humans. The risk of getting the Arenavirus infection for humans is related to age, race, or sex within the degree of contact with the dried rodent excrement.
    Lassa Fever
    Filoviridae:
    Fever: is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the lassa virus. It is spread to humans through contact with infected rodents. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, difficulty swallowing, cough, encephalitis, seizures and facial mucosal bleeding (see below)
    {http://g-influencemagazine.com/images/apics/Lassa.jpeg}
    Filoviridae: is a family of viruses that can spread from bats to humans, examples of this type of virus are Ebola and hemorrhagic fever.

    Ebola: The Ebola virus can cause severe viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) outbreaks in humans with a case fatality rate of up to 90%. Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals. Ebola is often characterized by the sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat.
    {http://udel.edu/~mpisan/EBOLAPIC.jpg}
    History
    Arenavirus:
    ...
    For hemorrhagic fever viruses spread by arthropod vectors, prevention efforts often focus on community-wide insect and arthropod control. In addition, people are encouraged to use insect repellant, proper clothing, bed nets, window screens, and other insect barriers to avoid being bitten.
    For those hemorrhagic fever viruses that can be transmitted from one person to another, avoiding close physical contact with infected people and their body fluids is the most important way of controlling the spread of disease. [1]
    {https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQItN8YK56Mf4JCXWdxr-nVnOLnfTzmW2YgOG4RAbhBPWbXuvWitQ}
    [1] “Viral Hemorrhagic Fever” CDC. N.p., N.d. Web. 1 Mar. 2014 http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/vhf.htm
    [2] "Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral" WHO. N.p., N.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2014
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  5. page 5 Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers edited What are Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers? ... and flaviviruses. They are all RNA viruses and are zoo…

    What are Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers?
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    and flaviviruses. They are all RNA viruses and are zoonotic (natural reservoir is an arthropod or another animal host). Transmission to humans occurs by contact with rodent feces, urine, saliva, blood, from a mosquito or tick bite or contact with infected animal or human. All types
    ...
    of Viral HemorrhagivHemorrhagic Fevers:
    {http://www.jpgmonline.com/articles/2012/58/1/images/jpgm_2012_58_1_39_93251_t1.jpg} Major worldwide hemorrhagic fever viruses

    Bunyaviridae:
    Hantavirus
    a family of negative stranded, enveloped RNA viruses that are generally found in arthropods (ticks and mosquitoes) or rodents. Examples of this type of VHF include Rift Valley Fever, Crimean-Congo fever and Hantavirus fever.
    Crimean Congo
    Fever: is a tick born disease with a 30% mortality rate, outbreaks are usually attributed to handling infected animals or people. Symptoms include acute kidney failure, shock, nosebleeds, swollen liver, and ecchymosis (see below)
    {https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQAGZScgqnjIb1zBdXhkkS4bwMNNvh1v1lIrOEgTgE9Q46J_qF4} A patient with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever with profound ecchymosis

    Flaviviridae:
    Dengue Fever: is a mosquito borne viral infection that causes flu like illness and can possibly develop lethal complications
    ...
    Filoviridae:
    Ebola: The Ebola virus can cause severe viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) outbreaks in humans with a case fatality rate of up to 90%. Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals. Ebola is often characterized by the sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat.
    {http://www.jpgmonline.com/articles/2012/58/1/images/jpgm_2012_58_1_39_93251_t1.jpg} Major worldwide hemorrhagic fever viruses {0002_symptoms.jpg} Yellow Fever Symptoms {http://i239.photobucket.com/albums/ff250/MantisOahu/Valley-fever-3_zps55bb7203.jpg} Skin abscesses caused by River Valley Fever
    History
    Arenavirus:
    ...
    History of Bioterrorism: Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
    Role in Bioterrorism
    ViralThe former Soviet Union developed the Marburg virus for use as a weapon, and conducted research on Ebola, Lassa, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever and New World arenaviruses. The U.S. has done research on all of these viruses, except Marburg and Ebola. North Korea is believed to have developed the yellow fever virus as a weapon. In 1999, the CDC classified the VHF's as category A bioweapon agents, based on the potential to cause widespread illness and death, ease of dissemination or person to person transmission, potential for major public health impact, and requirement of special action for public health prepardness.
    What VHF's are the biggest threat? [4]
    Viral
    hemorrhagic fever
    ...
    death rates. Ebola and MarburgThe two viruses considered to be the greatest bioterrorism threats are Ebola and Marburg, the most likelytwo members of viral hemorrhagic fevers to be usedthe filovirus family, which are categorized as biological weapons.category A bioweapon agents. These viruses characteristically cause high mortality and morbidity, are person to person spread, are highly infectious at a low dose by the aerosol route, are stable in the environment, and large-scale production is feasible. Attempts have
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    rodent excrement. [4]
    Prevention
    There are no vaccines that exist that can protect against VHF, with the exception of yellow fever and Argentine hemorrhagic fever. Therefore, prevention efforts must concentrate on avoiding contact with host species. If those prevention methods fail, and VHF does occur, the focus is put on preventing further transmission from person to person.
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    http://www.who.int/topics/haemorrhagic_fevers_viral/en/
    [3] “Viral Hemorrhagic Fever” The Center for Food Security and Public Health. Iowa State University N.D. Web. 1 Mar. 2014. http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/DiseaseInfo/ppt/ViralHemorrhagicFever.ppt
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    Mar. 2014. https://www.dshs.state.tx.us/preparedness/factsheet_vhf.pdfhttps://www.dshs.state.tx.us/preparedness/factsheet_vhf.pd
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  6. page 5 Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers edited ... What are Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers? Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a group of illnesses ca…
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    What are Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers?
    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a group of illnesses caused by four distinct families of viruses: arenaviruses, filoviruses, bunyaviruses, and flaviviruses. All types of VHF are characterized by fever and bleeding disorders. The viruses can progress to high fever, shock, internal or external bleeding, and even death. [1]
    {http://www.jpgmonline.com/articles/2012/58/1/images/jpgm_2012_58_1_39_93251_t1.jpg} Major worldwide hemorrhagic fever virusesTypes of Viral Hemorrhagiv Fevers:
    Bunyaviridae:
    Hantavirus Fever:
    Flaviviridae:
    Dengue Fever: is a mosquito borne viral infection that causes flu like illness and can possibly develop lethal complications

    {http://www.niaid.nih.gov/SiteCollectionImages/topics/denguefever/michaelRossmannStory.JPG} Patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever has a large subcutaneous hemorrhage on upper arm.
    {0002_symptoms.jpg}Arenaviridae:
    Lassa Fever
    Filoviridae:
    Ebola: The Ebola virus can cause severe viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) outbreaks in humans with a case fatality rate of up to 90%. Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals. Ebola is often characterized by the sudden onset of fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat.
    {http://www.jpgmonline.com/articles/2012/58/1/images/jpgm_2012_58_1_39_93251_t1.jpg} Major worldwide hemorrhagic fever viruses {0002_symptoms.jpg}
    Yellow Fever
    History
    Arenavirus:
    ...
    Flaviviridae
    Yellow Fever was first described in 1648 in Yucatan. It later caused huge outbreaks in tropical Americas in 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th century. The French failed to complete the Panama Canal because their work force was decimated by Yellow Fever.
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    Formosa 1931. [2][3]
    History of Bioterrorism: Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
    Role in Bioterrorism
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    rodent excrement. [3][4]
    Prevention
    There are no vaccines that exist that can protect against VHF, with the exception of yellow fever and Argentine hemorrhagic fever. Therefore, prevention efforts must concentrate on avoiding contact with host species. If those prevention methods fail, and VHF does occur, the focus is put on preventing further transmission from person to person.
    ...
    For those hemorrhagic fever viruses that can be transmitted from one person to another, avoiding close physical contact with infected people and their body fluids is the most important way of controlling the spread of disease. [1]
    [1] “Viral Hemorrhagic Fever” CDC. N.p., N.d. Web. 1 Mar. 2014 http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/vhf.htm
    [2] "Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral" WHO. N.p., N.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2014
    http://www.who.int/topics/haemorrhagic_fevers_viral/en/
    [3]
    “Viral Hemorrhagic
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    2014. http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/DiseaseInfo/ppt/ViralHemorrhagicFever.ppt
    [3]

    [4]
    “What You
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  7. page 5 Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers edited ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a group of illnesses caused by four distinct families of vi…
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    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are a group of illnesses caused by four distinct families of viruses: arenaviruses, filoviruses, bunyaviruses, and flaviviruses. All types of VHF are characterized by fever and bleeding disorders. The viruses can progress to high fever, shock, internal or external bleeding, and even death. [1]
    {http://www.jpgmonline.com/articles/2012/58/1/images/jpgm_2012_58_1_39_93251_t1.jpg} Major worldwide hemorrhagic fever viruses
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    upper arm. {0002_symptoms.jpg}
    {0002_symptoms.jpg}
    Yellow Fever Symptoms {http://i239.photobucket.com/albums/ff250/MantisOahu/Valley-fever-3_zps55bb7203.jpg}{http://i239.photobucket.com/albums/ff250/MantisOahu/Valley-fever-3_zps55bb7203.jpg} Skin abscesses
    History
    Arenavirus:
    (view changes)
  8. page home edited ... Click on picture above to learn how Illinois Department of Health is planning to repond to a b…
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    Click on picture above to learn how Illinois Department of Health is planning to repond to a bioterrorism threat.
    A Discovery Channel clip describing how you can survive a bioterror attack.
    Read more: http://www.digitaljournal.com/science/faster-method-developed-to-detect-bioterrorism/article/375538#ixzz2w2RUR4Lm
    Bioterrorism in the News
    1. "Experts Say Synthetic Biology Makes Bioterrorism More Accessible" Advancements in synthetic biology could give more options to organizations that want to develop and pursue biological weapon.
    http://bioprepwatch.com/biological-threats/bioterrorism/experts-say-synthetic-biology-makes-bioterrorism-more-accessible/336183/
    2. "Faster Method Developed to Detect Bioterrorism" Researchers have tested a new method for anthrax detection that can identify anthrax in only a few hours.
    http://www.digitaljournal.com/science/faster-method-developed-to-detect-bioterrorism/article/375538
    3."The Only Thing Scarier Than Bio-Warfare is the Antidote" As poorly regulated labs race to find the next antidote, bio-error may be more likely to cause an epidemic than bio-terror.
    http://mag.newsweek.com/2014/03/21/bioerror-bio-error-labs-bio-warfare-bioterror.html

    [1] "Bioterrorism Overview" CDC. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Mar. 2014 http://www.bt.cdc.gov/bioterrorism/overview.asp
    [2] "Bioterrorism Fact Sheet" APHA N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Mar. 2014 http://www.getreadyforflu.org/Bioterrorismonlinefactsheet.pdf
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